Author Guideline

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A reasonable approach to writing a scientific manuscript may be the following. First write the Methods section, largely derived from your initial research protocol, and perhaps during the experimental phase of the work itself so that all details are included. Construct all of the figures and tables that contain the data included in the work, and then write the Results section. Depending upon the type of study, there may be some iteration in the presentation of the data and writing of the text. Reconsider the scientific questions the manuscript will address, again referring to your research protocol, and then write the Introduction. Next, use the Introduction and Results to guide the writing of the Discussion. Summarize everything in an Abstract, and then condense and refocus the Abstract into a Conclusions section.

Abstract

The abstract is a condensed and concentrated version of the full text of the research manuscript. It should be sufficiently representative of the paper if read as a standalone document. The abstract must be as detailed as possible within the word count limits specified by the journal to which the paper is intended to be submitted. This will require good precis writing skills, as well as a fine judgment about what information is necessary and what is not. The abstract must contain as much information as possible on the analyses related to the primary and secondary outcome measures. The abstract should not present a biased picture, such as only favorable outcomes with the study drug, or findings that support the authors’ hypotheses; important nonsignificant and adverse findings should also receive mention. Thus, to the extent possible, the reader should be able to independently evaluate the authors’ conclusions.

Keyword

Precisely chosen words that reflects the aspect of the article

Introduction

The introduction requires a short review of the literature pertaining to the research topic. The introduction is then best constructed as a descriptive funnel, starting with broad topics and slowly focusing on the work at hand. Perhaps three to four paragraphs are needed. One approach may be to start with one or two paragraphs that introduce the reader to the general field of study. The subsequent paragraphs then describe how an aspect of this field could be improved. The final paragraph is critical. It clearly states, most likely in the first sentence of the paragraph, what experimental question will be answered by the present study. The hypothesis is then stated. Next, briefly describe the approach that was taken to test the hypothesis. Finally, a summary sentence may be added stating how the answer of your question will contribute to the overall field of study.

Methods

This section should be a straightforward description of the methods used in your study. Each method should be described in a separate section. Begin, in a single section, with a statement of the materials used in the study, indicating the vendor and vendor contact information for each material. This information is critical so that readers have the capability to repeat the work in their own institutions. Next describe, in separate sections, each key procedure and technique used in the study. Keep explanations brief and concise. If a specific experimental design is utilized, describe this design in the second section of the Methods, after the materials section. Similarly, if a theoretical or modeling component is utilized, it should also be incorporated in the initial portion of the Methods. Finally, remember to describe the statistical analysis methods that were utilized to analyze the results, most likely in the final section of the Methods section. Although it is typically not recommended, the use of the passive voice is probably appropriate in the Methods section.

Result and Discussion

The Results section presents the experimental data to the reader, and is not a place for discussion or interpretation of the data. The data itself should be presented in tables and figures. Introduce each group of tables and figures in a separate paragraph where the overall trends and data points of particular interest is noted. You may want to indicate the placement of a particular table or figure in the text. For experimental studies, key statistics such as the number of samples (n), the index of dispersion (SD, SEM), and the index of central tendency (mean, median or mode) must be stated. Include any statistical analysis that was performed, and make sure to indicate specific statistical data, such as p-values. Note that each table and figure in the paper must be referred to in the Results section. Be succinct.

The discussion section, often the most difficult to write, should be relatively easy if the previous suggestions have been followed. In particular, look to the last paragraph of the introduction. If the work has characterized a phenomenon by studying specific effects, use the results to describe each effect in separate paragraphs. If the work has presented a hypothesis, use the results to construct a logical argument that supports or rejects your hypothesis. If the work has identified three main objectives for the work, use the results to address each of these objectives. A well-defined study that is described in the Introduction, along with supporting results that are presented in the Results section, should ease the construction of the Discussion section. Begin the Discussion section with a brief paragraph that again gives an overview to the work. Summarize the most important findings and, if applicable, accept or reject the proposed hypothesis. Next, identify the most interesting, significant, remarkable findings that were presented in the Results section, and contrast these findings in light of other studies reported in the literature. It is often informative if a discussion of the potential weaknesses of the interpretation is also included. Finally, at the end of the Discussion section, consider the other works in the literature that address this topic and how this work contributes to the overall field of study.

 Conclusion

First introduce the work and then briefly state the major results. Then state the major points of the discussion. Finally, end with a statement of how this work contributes to the overall field of study.